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Glossary/Documents

actual mass

According to European Committee for Standardization (CEN) document EN 10248-2:1995E (European version of ASTM), “Compared with the calculated mass (product of ordered pile length by mass per linear meter of pile according to section tables of the producers), the actual mass shall deviate no more than +/- 5% from the mass of the total delivery.”


actual wall length

Actual length of the wall (panel width x panel quantity). The shortest possible length above your specified target wall length.


allowable bending stress

Flexure, or bending, is an indirect stress due to moments in the beam caused by the beam’s loads and reactions. The bending stress in a structural steel-rolled shape, due to the maximum bending moment, is usually the governing factor in beam selection.

Accepted engineering practice in the United States usually accounts for a safety factor for the allowable bending stress of 65% or (.65). Hence Fa = 0.65 x ksi of the given steel grade.

Therefore, for a compact braced section of A36 steel, the allowable bending stress is normally assumed to be 23.4 ksi.


anchors

Sheet pile retaining walls of all types may themselves require further support dependent upon design variables such as the depth of the excavation, the magnitude of lateral pressures and characteristics of the surrounding land. This further support restricts lateral deflections and can be achieved by anchors and tiebacks. For example, stressed anchors (also known as tiebacks) are constructed by drilling holes through the wall and into the adjacent ground at a downward inclination. The diameter, depth, inclination angle, location and the number of tiebacks are predetermined by design engineers. Steel strand cables (tieback cables) are placed into the drilled hole, which is then pressure grouted.

Eurocode BS EN 1993-5: 2007 Section 1.8.1 defines anchorage as the general expression used to describe the anchoring system at the back of a retaining wall, such as deadman anchors, anchor plates (or anchor screens), screw anchors, ground anchors, anchor piles and expanded bodies.


availability

An estimated delivery time that it takes a given steel piling section (usually in rolling quantites of 500 to 3000 tons) to be delivered to the job site in your determined target market.


bearing pile depth

As the bearing pile is positioned cross sectionally like an I, the depth is the distance from the top to the bottom as shown in the diagram as A.

diagram


bearing pile flange thickness

The thickness of the flange of the bearing pile as shown in the diagram as C.

diagram


bearing piles

Bearing piles are structural elements (steel H-piles or steel pipe piles) incorporated into the foundations of building projects or civil engineering works. They are used for resisting axial compressive or tensile forces, moments, and transverse (shear) forces. The vertical bearing resistance is achieved by base resistance, shaft friction or a combination of both.

More simply put: a post or pile which carries the weight of a foundation, transmitting the load of a structure to the bedrock or subsoil without detrimental settlement.


bearing pile web thickness

The thickness of the web of the bearing pile as shown in the diagram as D.

diagram


bearing pile width

As the bearing pile is positioned cross sectionally like an I, the width is the distance across the top or bottom flange as shown in the diagram as B.

diagram


Bending moment capacity

The best method for comparing SSP is via bending moment capacity, which incorporates the strength of the section due to its geometry (section modulus) and takes into account the steel grade:

Bending moment capacity = elastic section modulus [m3/m] × minimum yield strength [kN/m2] (without safety factor)

Decades ago, when there was predominantly only one steel grade, engineers used section modulus as the main design criteria. But now that many steel grades are available and production technology has evolved, we will likely see more and more higher grade steel options in the future. A higher grade of steel results in a stronger wall for less weight; thus, the best measure of strength to compare SSP systems is bending moment capacity, which incorporates section modulus and steel grade into one number independent of lifespan or safety factor. Incidentally, moment of inertia has no relationship to bending moment and is not typically a stand-alone criteria. Certain steel companies have pushed for moment of inertia to be placed as part of a primary specification and have, as a result, confused the term with the vital bending moment.


bracing

Eurocode BS EN 1993-5: 2007 Section 1.8.4 defines bracing as struts perpendicular or at an angle to the front face of a retaining wall that support the wall and are usually connected to the walings.


Buy America

Buy America will include only US manufactured sheet pile products


calculated mass

According to European Committee for Standardization (CEN) document EN 10248-2:1995E version of ASTM), “Compared with the calculated mass (product of ordered pile length by mass per linear meter of pile according to section tables of the producers), the actual mass shall deviate no more than +/- 5% from the mass of the total delivery.”


cantilever wall

Eurocode 3 Section 1.8.5 defines a cantilever wall as a wall whose stability depends solely upon the penetration of the sheet piling into the ground.


cellular cofferdam

Eurocode 3 Section 1.8.6 defines cellular cofferdams as constructed of straight web profiles with interlock tensile strength sufficient to resist the circumferential tension developed in the cellular walls due to the radial pressure of the contained fill. The stability of these cells is obtained by the self-weight of the fill.

The two basic types of cellular cofferdams are:

  • Circular cells: This type of cofferdam consists of individual cells of large diameter connected together by arcs of smaller diameter;
  • Diaphragm cells: This type of cofferdam consists of two rows of circular arcs connected together by diaphragms perpendicular to the axis of the cofferdam.

coating area

Coating area is simply the required area for anti-corrosion protective coating to be applied on a steel pipe, beam or sheet. Usually measured in square feet or square meters.

For Z and U sheet piling: the surface of the Z-profile section coated, excluding the ball and the interior of the socket.

For combined wall systems: the surface of the combined wall system coated, including the facing surfaces of the king pile (beams or pipes), intermediate sheet piling, and connectors.

diagram


combined sheet piles: H + Z

Combined sheet piles: H-Sheet Piles + Z-Sheet Piles is a combined steel sheet piling wall system comprising H-sheet piles (can be wide flange beams or special sheet piling H shapes with tips on the ends) connected to Z-sheet piles by special sheet piling connector sections.

diagram

The connector sections defined above are connected together through an interlocking system.

Eurocode 3 BS EN 1993-1995: 2007 Section 1.8.12 defines interlock as:

The portion of a steel sheet pile or other sheeting that connects adjacent elements by means of a thumb and finger or similar configuration to make a continuous wall.

According to BS EN 10248-2 (European version of ASTM), “Interlocks shall have adequate free play, so that the piles can be fitted into each other and they must engage in such a manner that the in service forces can be transmitted.” For non-flat sheet piling such as the interlock connecting system in combined H + Z sheet piling, BS EN 10248-2 also allows for a 4 mm minimum engagement distance in the interlocks in order to effectively transfer forces.

It is important to note that hot rolled sheet piling has this minimum engagement distance of 4 mm while cold formed does not necessarily. This is why cold formed does not always transfer shear forces as effectively as hot rolled sheet piling.

US Army Corps of Engineers Unified Facilities Guide Specifications Document UFGS-31 41 16 page 13 notes: “interlock connections between hot rolled sheets provide much greater strength than cold formed connections. Greater interlock strength improves integrity during driving and allows forces to be redistributed laterally along the wall at changes in wall alignment…”

Terms, tolerance, dimensions and delivery conditions in accordance to EN 10248 and/or ASTM A6.


combined sheet piles: O + Z

Combined sheet piles: O-Piles + Z-Sheet Piles is a combined steel sheet piling wall system comprising O-shaped pipes or tubes, acting as the primary elements, and connected to Z profiles via special sheet piling connecting sections.

diagram

The connector sections defined above are connected together through an interlocking system.

Eurocode 3 BS EN 1993-1995: 2007 Section 1.8.12 defines interlock as:

The portion of a steel sheet pile or other sheeting that connects adjacent elements by means of a thumb and finger or similar configuration to make a continuous wall.

According to BS EN 10248-2 (European version of ASTM), “Interlocks shall have adequate free play, so that the piles can be fitted into each other and they must engage in such a manner that the in service forces can be transmitted.” For non-flat sheet piling such as the interlock connecting system in combined O + Z sheet piling, BS EN 10248-2 also allows for a 4 mm minimum engagement distance in the interlocks in order to effectively transfer forces.

It is important to note that hot rolled sheet piling has this minimum engagement distance of 4 mm while cold formed does not necessarily. This is why cold formed does not always transfer shear forces as effectively as hot rolled sheet piling.

US Army Corps of Engineers Unified Facilities Guide Specifications Document UFGS-31 41 16 page 13 notes: “interlock connections between hot rolled sheets provide much greater strength than cold formed connections. Greater interlock strength improves integrity during driving and allows forces to be redistributed laterally along the wall at changes in wall alignment…”

Terms, tolerance, dimensions and delivery conditions in accordance to EN 10248 and/or ASTM A6.


combined sheet piling walls

Combined sheet piling walls are comprised of primary elements also known as “king piles” and secondary elements which typically contribute less than 5% to the overall load-bearing capacity of this type of steel wall type.

Primary elements are most often O-piles (pipes with welded connecting sections) or H-sheet piles (either beams with flanges or beams with welded connection sections).

Secondary elements are most often Z-sheet piles and/or connector piling sections in various configurations.


connector

A modular piling section that connects two sheet piling sections together.

Used either when needing to turn a corner, or for a transition from one type of interlock to another.

Also widely used to form all types of combined sheet pile walls, including pipe sheet pile retaining walls.


contiguous cold formed z-sheet pile

A z-shaped cold formed sheet pile is comprised of two flanges having substantially parallel outer faces and an oblique web connected to the two flanges which form a shape similar to the letter Z. The interlocks of a z-sheet cold formed pile are positioned beside the wall axis located at the flange ends and are interlocked into on another to form a continuous steel wall with the same element.

The connector sections defined above are connected together through an interlocking system.

Eurocode 3 BS EN 1993-1995: 2007 Section 1.8.12 defines interlock as:

The portion of a steel sheet pile or other sheeting that connects adjacent elements by means of a thumb and finger or similar configuration to make a continuous wall.

According to BS EN 10248-2 (European version of ASTM), “Interlocks shall have adequate free play, so that the piles can be fitted into each other and they must engage in such a manner that the in service forces can be transmitted.” For non-flat sheet piling such as the interlock connecting system in contiguous z-sheet piling, BS EN 10248-2 also allows for a 4 mm minimum engagement distance in the interlocks in order to effectively transfer forces.

It is important to note that hot rolled sheet piling has this minimum engagement distance of 4 mm while cold formed does not necessarily. This is why cold formed does not always transfer shear forces as effectively as hot rolled sheet piling.

US Army Corps of Engineers Unified Facilities Guide Specifications Document UFGS-31 41 16 page 13 notes: “interlock connections between hot rolled sheets provide much greater strength than cold formed connections. Greater interlock strength improves integrity during driving and allows forces to be redistributed laterally along the wall at changes in wall alignment…”


contiguous o-pile

An O-shaped sheet pile is a pipe section with attached connector sections so that one section can be driven into the next to form a continuous steel wall with the same load bearing element.

diagram

The connector sections defined above are connected together through an interlocking system.

Eurocode 3 BS EN 1993-1995: 2007 Section 1.8.12 defines interlock as:

The portion of a steel sheet pile or other sheeting that connects adjacent elements by means of a thumb and finger or similar configuration to make a continuous wall.

According to BS EN 10248-2 (European version of ASTM), “Interlocks shall have adequate free play, so that the piles can be fitted into each other and they must engage in such a manner that the in service forces can be transmitted.” For non-flat sheet piling such as the interlock connecting system in contiguous o-sheet piling, BS EN 10248-2 also allows for a 4 mm minimum engagement distance in the interlocks in order to effectively transfer forces.

It is important to note that hot rolled sheet piling has this minimum engagement distance of 4 mm while cold formed does not necessarily. This is why cold formed does not always transfer shear forces as effectively as hot rolled sheet piling.

US Army Corps of Engineers Unified Facilities Guide Specifications Document UFGS-31 41 16 page 13 notes: “interlock connections between hot rolled sheets provide much greater strength than cold formed connections. Greater interlock strength improves integrity during driving and allows forces to be redistributed laterally along the wall at changes in wall alignment…”


contiguous u-sheet pile

A U-shaped sheet pile is comprised of a web with two flanges which form a shape similar to the letter U. The interlocks of a single u sheet pile are positioned at both flange ends and are located on the wall axis.

diagram

The connector sections defined above are connected together through an interlocking system.

Eurocode 3 BS EN 1993-1995: 2007 Section 1.8.12 defines interlock as:

The portion of a steel sheet pile or other sheeting that connects adjacent elements by means of a thumb and finger or similar configuration to make a continuous wall.

According to BS EN 10248-2 (European version of ASTM), “Interlocks shall have adequate free play, so that the piles can be fitted into each other and they must engage in such a manner that the in service forces can be transmitted.” For non-flat sheet piling such as the interlock connecting system in contiguous u-sheet piling, BS EN 10248-2 also allows for a 4 mm minimum engagement distance in the interlocks in order to effectively transfer forces.

It is important to note that hot rolled sheet piling has this minimum engagement distance of 4 mm while cold formed does not necessarily. This is why cold formed does not always transfer shear forces as effectively as hot rolled sheet piling.

US Army Corps of Engineers Unified Facilities Guide Specifications Document UFGS-31 41 16 page 13 notes: “interlock connections between hot rolled sheets provide much greater strength than cold formed connections. Greater interlock strength improves integrity during driving and allows forces to be redistributed laterally along the wall at changes in wall alignment…”


contiguous wall

Contiguous sheet pile walls are a series of steel panels that vertically interlock to form a continuous wall. The reusable steel panels are driven into the ground in such a way that each panel interlocks with the adjacent one on each side.

Contiguous sheet pile walls may provide an efficient, economical and time-saving solution in certain types of applications, such as cofferdams, cut and cover tunnels, retaining walls, seawalls and containment walls.

Z-sheet piles and U-sheet piles are typically recommended for applications of less than 3000 cm3/m, and pipe sheet walls for applications above 3600 cm3/m. For applications between 3000 and 3600 cm3/m, it is recommend that all options be considered.


contiguous z-sheet pile

A z-shaped sheet pile is comprised of two flanges having substantially parallel outer faces and an oblique web connected to the two flanges which form a shape similar to the letter Z. The interlocks of a z-sheet pile are positioned beside the wall axis located at the flange ends and are interlocked into on another to form a continuous steel wall with the same element.

diagram

The connector sections defined above are connected together through an interlocking system.

Eurocode 3 BS EN 1993-1995: 2007 Section 1.8.12 defines interlock as:

The portion of a steel sheet pile or other sheeting that connects adjacent elements by means of a thumb and finger or similar configuration to make a continuous wall.

According to BS EN 10248-2 (European version of ASTM), “Interlocks shall have adequate free play, so that the piles can be fitted into each other and they must engage in such a manner that the in service forces can be transmitted.” For non-flat sheet piling such as the interlock connecting system in contiguous z-sheet piling, BS EN 10248-2 also allows for a 4 mm minimum engagement distance in the interlocks in order to effectively transfer forces.

It is important to note that hot rolled sheet piling has this minimum engagement distance of 4 mm while cold formed does not necessarily. This is why cold formed does not always transfer shear forces as effectively as hot rolled sheet piling.

US Army Corps of Engineers Unified Facilities Guide Specifications Document UFGS-31 41 16 page 13 notes: “interlock connections between hot rolled sheets provide much greater strength than cold formed connections. Greater interlock strength improves integrity during driving and allows forces to be redistributed laterally along the wall at changes in wall alignment…”


corrosion resistance

Corrosion resistance is the percentage of section modulus remaining in a steel section after a given period of time, according to corrosion data from the Eurocode.


depth

Distance from front to back of the wall as seen from above. Also referred to as the height.

diagram


design life

The amount of time you want your steel retaining wall to last. Steel sheet piling is usually classified into two construction applications: temporary and permanent.

A permanent application is usually referred to as “stay-in-place,” as the sheet piling wall is driven and remains in the ground. A temporary sheet pile wall provides access and safety for construction in a confined area. Once the work is completed, the sheet piling is removed.


design moment

Design Moment is the maximum bending moment from the static calculation of the sheet pile section.

NOTE: On most steel piling projects that are to be bid for construction, it is best to have a Design Moment specified (e.g., 100 k-in/ft.) that engineers can work from, rather than a specified steel section, as this does not tell engineers the exact stresses that they need to work from.

Better Understanding Section Modulus, Design Moment and Moment of Inertia


design strength

Design strength of a steel piling structure usually factors into consideration the maximum bending moment for the static calculation of the sheet pile section under given loads as well as the steel grade of the sheet piling elements.


documents

Steel Sheet Piling Installation – Best Practices

Successful Steel Sheet Pile Driving

NASSPA Retaining Wall Comparison

NASSPA Best Practices Sheet Piling Installation Guide

NASSPA Guidance on Corrosion


double U-pile

Eurocode 3 Section 1.8.8 defines double U-piles as “two threaded single U sheet piles with a crimped or welded common interlock allowing for shear force transmission.”


driveability

Eurocode 3 Section 1.8.9 defines driveability as “the ability of a sheet pile or bearing pile to be driven through the ground strata to the required penetration depth without detrimental effects.”


driving ratio

Driving ratio is the percentage of the wall length that will need to be driven to the full design depth (king piles). The remaining percentage will be easier to install because of the shorter intermediate sheet piling.

The lower the driving ratio, the easier and quicker it will be to install the system.

diagram

Driving ratio is calculated by the following formula:

D = (Wp − Wi) / Wp

Wp = panel width
Wi = intermediate sheet piling width (with connectors)


elastic section modulus

Traditionally, civil engineers base design guidelines on elastic section modulus. If you see a section modulus number cited without reference to whether it is plastic or elastic, then the general rule is that this is elastic section modulus. In the rare instances when plastic section modulus is used, the word “plastic” almost always explicitly precedes section modulus. Plastic section modulus is usually used to calculate according to the plastic method and to determine the plastic capacity of cross-sections. The elastic and plastic resistance values are different and the calculation results may be different.


environment

As defined by: Eurocode BS EN 1993-5: 2007.


estimated price

Estimated market price based on current price of scrap metal, manufacturer value-added, and welding and interlock sealant if necessary. Estimated prices should be regarded as rough guidelines only. Actual prices will vary widely.


fillet radius

The slightly curved portion where the transition between web and flange happens is called fillet. The radius of the fillet is simply called fillet radius.

diagram


flange thickness

Simply the thickness of a given steel flange. Usually measured in cm or inches.

diagram

diagram


flange width

The top and bottom horizontal plate, like sections of an I-beam, are called flanges. Flange width is simply the width of the flanges.


flexibility

The amount of swivel at each wall component interlock (measured in degrees or radians). Greater flexibility allows for easier driving in difficult soil conditions.

A combined sheet piling wall system’s flexibility usually allows for easy setting of the intermediate sheet piling between the already driven king piles (beams or pipes).

diagram


high modulus wall

Eurocode 3 Section 1.8.11 defines a high modulus wall as a high-strength retaining wall formed by interlocking steel elements that have the same geometry. The elements may consist of fabricated profiles to obtain a high section modulus.


interlock

Steel sheet piling is a manufactured construction product with an interlock connection at both ends of the section. These interlocks connect with one another to form a continuous wall of sheet piling. Steel sheet pile applications are designed to be interlocked together to create a rigid barrier for earth and water, while resisting the lateral pressures of those bending forces.

Eurocode 3 BS EN 1993-1995: 2007 Section 1.8.12 defines interlock as:

The portion of a steel sheet pile or other sheeting that connects adjacent elements by means of a thumb and finger or similar configuration to make a continuous wall.

Interlocks may be described as:

  • Free: Threaded interlocks that are neither crimped nor welded;
  • Crimped: Interlocks of threaded single piles that have been mechanically connected by crimped points;
  • Welded: Interlocks of threaded single piles that have been mechanically connected by continuous or intermittent welding.

According to BS EN 10248-2 (European version of ASTM), “Interlocks shall have adequate free play, so that the piles can be fitted into each other and they must engage in such a manner that the in service forces can be transmitted.” For non-flat sheet piling, BS EN 10248-2 also allows for a 4 mm minimum engagement distance in the interlocks in order to effectively transfer forces.

It is important to note that hot rolled sheet piling has this minimum engagement distance of 4 mm while cold formed does not necessarily. This is why cold formed does not always transfer shear forces as effectively as hot rolled sheet piling.

US Army Corps of Engineers Unified Facilities Guide Specifications Document UFGS-31 41 16 page 12 notes: “interlock connections between hot rolled sheets provide much greater strength than cold formed connections. Greater interlock strength improves integrity during driving and allows forces to be redistributed laterally along the wall at changes in wall alignment…”


interlock sealant

A steel sheet piling interlock sealant is used to prevent the penetration of water through a steel sheet pile system. Desirable properties of such sealants include insolubility, corrosion resistance, and adhesion.


Interlock strength

“Greater interlock strength improves integrity during driving and allows forces to be redistributed laterally along the wall.” USACE: 2.1 Metal Sheet Piling UFGS -31 41 16 Page 12


intermediate pile ratio

This is the percentage of the intermediate pile length that will be used in a combined sheet pile system.

An intermediate pile is a steel section between the main load bearing elements which can be O or H piles (beams or pipes). For continuous O-Piles the intermediate pipe pile can be reduced to 95% of the length of the piles without the need for design checking. Lengths shorter than 95% can be achieved provided a check is made of stresses induced at the bottom of the wall where the piles are cut short.

The intermediate length can be at a percentage determined by the designer. It is common to have the intermediate pile length at or around the point of zero net pressure. The connector pile length will normally be the same length as the intermediate piles.

The king piles (beams or pipe) are driven deeper, typically resulting in shorter intermediate sheet piling, as the king piles are the main load-carrying elements of the system.

EAU Recommendations of the Committee for Waterfront Structures, 7th Edition, Ernst and Sohn, 1996 section 8.2.10.4, recommends tip elevations for various situations/soil conditions, states the following:

“The conditions are different for sheet piling composed of bearing and intermediate piles…Water pressure difference, safety from failure by heave and scour danger must be considered.

The embedment of the intermediate piles for high harbour walls in good bearing soil should be at least 8.2 feet (2.5 m) for low walls with slight water pressure difference, it should be at least 4.92 feet (1.5 m)."


jagged wall

Eurocode 3 Section 1.8.13 defines jagged walls as a "special sheet pile wall configuration in which the single piles are arranged either to enhance the moment of inertia of the wall or to suit special applications.

diagram


king pile height

Simply the overall length of the king pile or H-sheet pile/O-pile in a combined sheet pile configuration. “Height” can also refer to the same distance as a the “depth” of an H pile section.

diagram


king pile wall

Eurocode 3 Section 1.8.16 defines a king pile wall as consisting of vertical piles (king, master or soldier piles) driven at intervals, supporting intermediate horizontal elements (boarding, planks or lagging). The king or master piles may be rolled or welded I-sections, tubular or box sections.


mill direct system

A published sheet piling system by a producer of sheet pile. May include both king piles and intermediate piles, as well as connectors, all in one solution that can be shipped as one package solution — as opposed to buying individual components of a sheet piling system and having them shipped separately.


moment of inertia

Moment of Inertia is a measure of the stiffness of a shape based on geometry. It is most often used for calculating section modulus and is not typically a stand-alone design criterion in the way that section modulus or Design Moment usually are used by engineers and designers.

NOTE: On most steel piling projects that are to be bid for construction, it is best to have a Bending Moment Capacity specified (e.g., 388.5 k-ft/ft) that engineers can work from, rather than a specified steel section, as this does not tell engineers the exact stresses that they need to work from.


o-pile

An O-shaped sheet pile is a pipe section with attached connector sections.

diagram


panel quantity

Number of panels used to build a wall solution.


panel width

Panel width is usually defined as the measured distance from interlocking point to interlocking point of each specific sheet pile section.

diagram


pile coupler

Eurocode 3 Section 1.8.14 defines pile couplers as a mechanical friction sleeve used to lengthen a steel tubular or X-shaped pile.


pipe diameter

Pipe diameter is simply the length across the widest portion of the face of the pipe.

diagram


pipe thickness

Simply the measurement of the thickness of a steel pipe section. Usually expressed in centimeters or inches.

diagram


plastic section modulus

Traditionally, civil engineers base design guidelines on elastic section modulus. If you see a section modulus number cited without reference to whether it is plastic or elastic, then the general rule is that this is elastic section modulus. In the rare instances when plastic section modulus is used, the word “plastic” almost always explicitly precedes section modulus. Plastic section modulus is usually used to calculate according to the plastic method and to determine the plastic capacity of a cross-section. The elastic and plastic resistance values are different, and the calculation results may be different.


primary elements

Eurocode 3 Section 1.8.7 defines combined walls as "retaining walls composed of primary and secondary elements. The primary elements are normally steel tubular piles, I-sections or built-up box types, spaced uniformly along the length of the wall. The secondary elements are generally steel sheet piles of various types installed in the spaces between the primary elements and connected to them by interlocks.


projected section modulus

Projected section modulus is an estimation of the actual section modulus of a given steel component after time and corrosion effects due to inputted environmental conditions. For more detail about how iSheetPile’s corrosion simulation tools work, see the article in the resources section.


projected specifications

Under each steel product listed on iSheetPile’s website, you will find an environment input which is based on empirical corrosion loss data in these ten different environments from EN 1993-5:1997 and BS EN 1993-5:2007 (Eurostandards for steel piling.) Specifically, the empirical data comes from Eurocode Table 4-1: Recommended value for the loss of thickness [mm] due to corrosion for piles and sheet piles in soils, with or without groundwater; and Table 4-2: Recommended value for the loss of thickness [mm] due to corrosion for piles and sheet piles in fresh water or in sea water. You will also find a time input, which is simply the design life of your project.

Once these two parameters are entered under the given steel component or wall type you are interested in comparing other solutions to, iSheetPile’s corrosion allowance tool builds a mathematical model and projects a calculated estimation of sacrificial steel loss over the given period of time and under the inputted environmental conditions. The corrosion loss is then modeled over the steel component itself and various similar steel sections in iSheetPile’s database taking into account how corrosion loss will affect the steel component’s geometry and section modulus – thereby affecting the final strength of the steel section at the end of its design life. Therefore, in the comparison grid you will see starting “section modulus” and a final “projected section modulus” based on the mathematical modeling of iSheetPile’s corrosion simulations.


propped wall

Eurocode 3 Section 1.8.15 defines propped walls as retaining walls whose stability depends upon penetration of the sheet piling into the ground, and also upon one or more levels of bracing.


quantity converter tool

convert from: to US:

quantity:



safety factor

Accepted engineering practice in United States usually accounts for a safety factor for the allowable bending stress of 65% (or, .65). Hence, (Fa = 0.65 x ksi of the given steel grade).


sealant

A steel sheet piling interlock sealant is used to prevent the penetration of water through a steel sheet pile system. Desirable properties of steel sheet piling interlock sealants include insolubility, corrosion resistance, and adhesion.


secondary elements

Eurocode 3 Section 1.8.7 defines combined walls as "retaining walls composed of primary and secondary elements. The primary elements are normally steel tubular piles, I-sections or built up box types, spaced uniformly along the length of the wall. The secondary elements are generally steel sheet piles of various types installed in the spaces between the primary elements and connected to them by interlocks.


section area

The cross-sectional area of a given geometrical profile.


section depth

Distance from front to back of the section, as seen from above.

diagram


section modulus

Section modulus is the measurement of the relative stiffness of a cross section of steel piling based solely on its geometry. Calculated as Moment of Inertia divided by neutral axis.

It is expressed in units of volume (e.g. cubic inches or cubic centimeters).

NOTE: On most steel piling projects that are to be bid for construction, it is best to have a Bending Moment Capacity specified (e.g., 388.5 k-ft/ft) that engineers can work from, rather than a specified steel section, as this does not tell engineers the exact stresses that they need to work from.


section weight

Weight per wall panel unit (or piece) for a given profile section.


section width

Width is measured from interlock to interlock, along the horizontal axis of the steel shape.

diagram


setting ratio

Setting ratio is the percentage of the wall length that does NOT need to be driven to the full design depth. It is typically much easier to “set” this intermediate sheet piling.

The higher the setting ratio, the easier and quicker it will be to install the system.

diagram

Setting ratio is calculated by the following formula:

D = Wi / Wp

Wp = panel width
Wi = intermediate sheet piling width (with connectors)


sheet pile connector

A modular component that connects two sheet piling sections together. Widely used to form seamless connections between steel sheet pile, and other support systems, such as H-Beam, I-Beam and Pipes/Tubes.


sheet piling height

Sheet piling height is the length of each sheet pile section measured vertically.

diagram


soldier wall

Eurocode 3 Section 1.8.16 defines soldier walls as those walls that consist of vertical piles (king, master or soldier piles) driven at intervals, supporting intermediate horizontal elements (boarding, planks or lagging). The king or master piles may be rolled or welded I-sections, tubular or box sections.


specifications

Manufacturers are asked to send updated information to info@isheetpile.com or call +1-866-671-7453 to correct and update any posted details regarding their sections. Information is taken from the latest known manufacturer catalogues and websites. Sections displayed are thought to be available for sale and use in the US market within a lead-time of 16 weeks.


steel grade

Steel grade identifies the strength value for a type of steel.

“Grade 50” steel has a value of 50,000 ksi (Kips per square inch).

Engineers may also choose a higher steel grade to replace a heavier section with a smaller one if necessary or to fulfill other requests (for example: corrosion resistance through higher stress reserves).


steel piling combined walls

Combi-Wall steel sheet pile systems are comprised of two main sections: a steel sheet pile and a “king” pile. The “king” pile may be either a steel beam or pipe pile. Combi walls have proven to be a cost efficient way to achieve high section modulus for retaining wall, cofferdam or dock structures.


strength

The strength of a steel piling system usually includes such considerations as the maximum bending moment for the static calculation of the sheet pile section under given loads as well as the steel grade of the sheet piling elements that make up the system.


target wall length

Ideal length of the wall, as specified by you. The target length is not usually achievable because each unit of wall has a particular size which is usually not an exact divisor of your target length. The actual wall length, the real length of the wall, is the shortest possible length above your specified target.


tiebacks

Steel pile retaining walls may themselves require further support dependent on design variables such as the depth of the excavation, the magnitude of lateral pressures and characteristics of the surrounding land. This further support restricts lateral deflections and can be achieved by anchors and tiebacks.The diameter, depth, inclination angle, location and the number of tiebacks are predetermined by design engineers.


triple u piling

Eurocode 3 Section 1.8.22 defines triple u piling as a sheet pile consisting of three threaded single U sheet piles with two crimped or welded common interlocks allowing for shear force transmission.


u-sheet pile

A U-sheet pile is comprised of a web with two flanges which form a shape similar to the letter U. The interlocks of a single u sheet pile are positioned at both flange ends and are located on the wall axis.

U-sheet piles are mostly used as double piles, factory threaded and crimped or welded in the middle interlock for transfering shear forces into the ground.

diagram


wadit

WADIT® is a globally proven sheet piling interlock sealant that can be used with all types of hot rolled and cold formed sheet piling interlocks in every environment (tropical to arctic) possible and particularly in marine conditions.


waling

EAU 2004, R 29, describes walings as heavy steel elements in a low steel grade constructed of two U-channels with stiffeners rectangularly placed to the sheet pile.


wall length

Wall length is simply the the overall distance of the retaining, cofferdam or dock sheet pile wall.

diagram


wall tool

The iSheetPile’s patented wall tool is a revolutionary computer program that allows steel industry practitioners to compare – in an apples to apples fashion – steel piling solutions with each other.

This steel wall comparison tool should be used in conjunction with engineering design and project specifications and is meant to give steel industry practitioners a quick, general idea of what may be the strongest and lightest steel solution for their individual project needs.


waterproofing

A steel sheet piling interlock sealant is used to prevent the penetration of water through a steel sheet pile system. Desirable properties of steel sheet piling interlock sealants include insolubility, corrosion resistance, and adhesion.


web thickness

The vertical section of a steel I beam is called the web and the thickness of the web is simply called web thickness.

diagram

diagram


weight

The average weight (per square unit of wall) is usually the most relevant calculation for comparing piling solution costs of the acceptable section modulus.

In combined sheet pile applications the king piles are typically driven deeper than the intermediate piles resulting in shorter intermediate sheet piling which reduces weight. For example, the intermediate piles might be 60% or 80% the length of the king piles.

Please keep in mind that although weight is a factor in choosing steel wall system the lowest weight (per square unit of wall) that meets the necessary section modulus will not necessarily determine the less expensive solution.


weight per area

The average weight per square unit of wall is the most relevant calculation for comparing piling solution costs of acceptable section modulus. The lowest weight (per square unit of wall) that meets the necessary section modulus may determine the least expensive solution.


weight ratio

The average weight (per square unit of wall) is usually the most relevant calculation for comparing piling solution costs of the acceptable section modulus.

The lowest weight (per square unit of wall) that meets the necessary section modulus will usually determine the less expensive solution.

100% Ratio
This weight assumes a 100% ratio of sheet length to beam (or pipe) length.

80% Ratio
This weight assumes a 80% ratio of sheet length to beam (or pipe) length. The king piles (pipes or beams) are driven deeper, typically resulting in shorter intermediate sheet piling as the king piles are the load carrying elements of the system.

60% Ratio
This weight assumes a 60% ratio of sheet length to beam (or pipe) length. The king piles (beams or pipes) are driven deeper, typically resulting in shorter intermediate sheet piling as the king piles are the load carrying elements of the system.

(Connector length should be the same as the sheets).

The approximate location of the lower-edge of the intermediate sheet piling should be at the zero-point of the load diagram, and scour considerations must also be factored.


width

Width of a sheet of piling is simply the distance across the section. Usually measured from the interlocking point to interlocking point of each specific sheet pile section.

diagram

The width of a combined sheet piling wall panel is measured from centerline to centerline of the king piles at each end.

diagram

Wider sheets usually lead to reduced installation costs and less handling.


z-sheet pile

A z-shaped sheet pile is comprised of two flanges having substantially parallel outer faces and an oblique web connected to the two flanges which form a shape similar to the letter Z. The interlocks of a z-sheet pile are positioned beside the wall axis located at the flange ends.

diagram